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Another issue that could be tackled with the adoption of a new communication protocol is the potential disconnection that exists between the INGV activity group, which consists of volcanologists who monitor, study, and forecast volcanic events, and the INGV outcome group, which deals with volcano-activity communications.
In many parts of the world, there is no physical activity group. Some or all members of this group can still be represented by the outcome group, possibly made up of communications specialists. The ISCPC has developed a bibliography devoted to eruptive-activities communications, which can serve as a guide for those who are interested in running a specific type of volcano-activity-information system. Likewise, the International Volcano Observers Network (IVON) database, which was developed for use by INGV and the ISCPC, can provide a reference for the volcanic events that have been monitored and for which results have been processed.
The Volcano Watch team at the Monterey Bay Aquarium coordinates the community response to volcanic events by alerting key partners and communicating scientifically through five data streams: activity, gas, weather, ash, and people. The activity data stream includes volcano monitoring with the most traditional forms of data collection—such as seismicity (earthquakes and eruptions), thermal and gas emissions, as well as ground deformation—as well as new forms of data collection, such as infrasound monitoring ( See section 1.2.1 ). The gas data stream consists of atmospheric-sample analyses, including the recently developed network of monitoring stations around the world . The weather data stream includes NOAA’s Geomagnetic Storm Monitor (
A few hours later we receive our VMS, and we can see that the alarm is going off, and the alarm trigger is within the warning threshold. The VMS is working great. But it is not easy to control the alarm. We can monitor seismicity, but the waveform of the alarm is too similar to seismicity for us to distinguish between the two. If there was a high-level earthquake, we would not see the alarm rising up. We know that this is a volcano, and we know there is an eruption. We know this earthquake is not an ordinary high-level event, but we are not sure if it’s an eruption.
Before the eruption, however, local stakeholders must have received information about the eruption to ensure they can respond to different emergency and recovery scenarios, based on the kind of eruption. Every volcano may not erupt every year, and the hazard can change between eruptions. This is why volcanologists recommend setting a contingency plan for every type of eruption, so the response teams and responders have the information they need to react accordingly. For more information on volcano emergencies and other activities, members of the NMCC are available for consultation.
The fundamental strength of the system is that it provides a common understanding of how critical data can be shared, assessed, and distributed. The INGV’s volcanoes observatory provides 24/7 monitoring systems. Because data are available in near real-time, rapid responses can be achieved. The system is used both by government agencies and by academic institutions, thus it represents an efficient tool that can be used in different situations.